Schwarz, S., Pashos, A., & Euler, H. A. (2016, online).
Grandparental investment.
In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1182-1.

Euler, H. A. (2016, online)
Relationship uncertainty.
In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science (pp.1-3). New York, NY: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1184-1
Abstract: Definition The term relationship uncertainty here does not refer to uncertainty about the status of a current romantic relationship but to a biological kinship uncertainty due to paternity uncertainty. For example, how certain is the biological relationship between two cousins where maximally two links of doubted paternity (father, father’s brother) can be involved?

Euler, H. A. (2016, online)
Euler & Weitzel (1996).
In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York (NY): Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1190-1

Lange, B. P., Euler, H. A., & Zaretsky, E. (2016).
Sex differences in language competence of 3- to 6-year-old children.
Applied Psycholinguistics, 37, 1417 - 1438. doi: 10.1017/S0142716415000624.
Abstract: For decades, developmental research has involved the study of sex differences in language acquisition. Many studies of these differences have found a slight advantage in competence for females early in life that seems to wane with age. However, because most of these studies have focused on sex differences in mean values, they have mostly neglected sex differences in variance with males being more variable. In the current study, we examined sex differences in language competence in terms of mean values and variance in large samples (N > 10,000) of German children aged 3–6 years. We administered several tests to assess the children’s vocabulary, grammar, speech comprehension, pronunciation, and the processing of sentences and nonce words. Girls performed better than boys in all domains, most often to a statistically significant degree, although the effect sizes were small. Differences decreased with age. Boys varied significantly more than girls in their language competence. In response, we discuss explanations for these findings, as well as recommend directions for future research.

Euler, H. A. (2015).
Geschlechterunterschiede
In B. P. Lange & S. Schwarz (Hrsg.), Die menschliche Psyche zwischen Natur und Kultur (S. 62 - 73). Lengerich: Pabst Publishers.

Sela, Y., Shackelford, T. K., Pham, M. N., & Euler, H. A. (2015).
Do women perform fellatio as a mate retention behavior?
Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 61 - 66.
Abstract: Men who report performing more mate retention behaviors, in general, and more benefit-provisioning mate retention behaviors, in particular, also report greater interest in, and spend more time, performing oral sex on their female partner. We extended these findings to a female sample to investigate whether women’s oral sex behaviors are related to their mate retention behaviors. We secured self-report data from 410 women residing in the United States or in Germany in a committed, sexual, heterosexual relationship. The results indicate that women who report performing more benefit-provisioning mate retention behaviors also report greater interest in, and spend more time, performing oral sex on their partner. Further, there are no sex differences in the magnitudes or directions of these relationships. The results suggest that both men and women are more interested in, and spend more time, performing oral sex on their partner as part of a benefit-provisioning strategy to increase their partner’s relationship satisfaction. We address limitations of this research, and discuss explanations for the results.

Lange, B. P., Schwarz, S., Zaretsky, E., & Euler, H. A. (2014).
Sounding hot? Experimental research on verbal proficiency as a menstrual-cycle dependent female mate choice criterion.
Acta Linguistica, 8, 133-139.
Abstract: Female fertility, which changes across the menstrual cycle, as an important factor in human mate choice has been in the scope of evolutionary psychological research for some time now. Many studies report effects of fertility on the female perception of many different mate choice-relevant traits, especially in short-term mating. One trait not studied so far from this perspective is verbal proficiency, a trait closely related to creativity and thus possibly a potential indicator of good genes. Using an experimental design, we tested whether high male verbal proficiency is more preferred by fertile than by non-fertile women. Three audio files were used as stimuli in which a male actor performed scripted verbal self-presentations. The script content was the same in each presentation but was delivered with three levels of verbal proficiency with respect to lexical, grammatical, and speech fluency features. Fertile and non-fertile women (N= 305) had to rate one randomly selected audio file for short-term and long-term attractiveness. An effect on short-term attractiveness was found, but not on long-term attractiveness. Contrary to the expectation, non-fertile women rated men with the highest verbal proficiency as more attractive asa short-term mate than high-fertile women. Verbal proficiency may be an indicator of resources (e.g., via income) that can be provided in long-term mating rather than an indicator of good genes in short-term mating.

Euler, H. A. (2014)
Psychologische Aspekte in der anwaltlichen Beratung von Erbengemeinschaften
ErbR – Zeitschrift für die gesamte erbrechtliche Praxis, 8, 1-40.
Abstract: Our natural legacy still influences our motivational architecture and thus our behavior. Often this legacy is expressed in family conflicts, which often flare up intensely in inheritance conflicts: The conflict between claims due to degree of genetic relationship and claims due to reciprocity; the sibling conflict, which originated in childhood over parental investment and which may brake up massively in case of succession; the sex conflict according to which women invest in children more than men do, and men more in extramarital affairs; the discriminative grandparental investment, according to which grandparents tend to invest more in children of daughters than in children of sons, and grandmothers, due to the sex conflict, more than grandfathers. Knowledge about these natural conflict points may help to solve problems in legal counselling in case of succession.
Zusammenfassung: Unser evolutionäres Erbe beeinflusst nach wie vor unsere Motivationsstruktur und damit unser Verhalten. Dieses natürliche Erbe äußert sich oft in familiären Konflikten, die in Erbstreitigkeiten in besonderem Maße aufflammen können: Der Konflikt zwischen Anspruch aufgrund von Verwandtschaftsgrad und Anspruch aufgrund von Gegenseitigkeit; der Geschwisterkonflikt, der in der Kindheit um Buhlen elterlicher Zuwendung entsteht und im Erbfall massiv aufbrechen kann; der Geschlechterkonflikt, nach dem Frauen mehr als Männer in elterliche Fürsorge investieren, Männer mehr als Frauen in außereheliche Angelegenheiten; die bevorzugende großelterliche Fürsorge, nach der Großeltern eher geneigt sind, in Kinder von Töchtern als in Kinder von Söhnen zu investieren, und Großmütter, entsprechend dem Geschlechterkonflikt, mehr investieren als Großväter. Eine Kenntnis über diese natürlich vorgegebenen Konfliktstellen kann zu einer vermittelnden anwaltlichen Beratung von Erbengemeinschaften beitragen.

Lange, B. P., Zaretsky, E., Schwarz, S., & Euler, H. A. (2014).
Words won't fail: Experimental evidence on the role of verbal proficiency in mate choice.
Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 33, 482-499.
Abstract: According to sexual selection theory, verbal proficiency increases mate value, more for men than for women. This prediction was tested experimentally with stimuli which cover major linguistic competences and verbal performance quality. In the first experiment, the stimuli for opposite-sex participants were six videos in which an actor or an actress performed scripted verbal self-presentations. The script content was the same in each presentation but was delivered with three levels of verbal proficiency with respect to lexical, morphological, syntactical, and speech fluency features. The main effect of verbal proficiency on attractiveness was supported, but not the interaction effect between sex and verbal proficiency, according to which male mate value should be higher affected by verbal proficiency than female mate value. In the second experiment, only the audio tracks from the videos were used as stimuli in an online study. Both the main and the interaction effects were significant. Verbal proficiency plays a significant role in mate choice, probably especially for male mate value.

Lange, B. P., & Euler, H. A. (2014)
Writers have groupies, too: High quality literature production and mating success
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 8, 20-30.
Abstract: Literature production may be shaped by sexual selection because most books are produced by men of reproductive age. However, the actual fitness benefit of world-class literature production has not as yet been documented. We hypothesize that the quantitative and qualitative literary output of famous writers would correlate with their number of mates, children, and grandchildren. We further assumed that writing lyric poetry would be more beneficial for mating success than non-poetry because the former consists of more verbal handicaps (e.g., rhymes) than the latter and thus requires special literary competences. Literary quality and success were operationalized by the number of writers’ entries in 2 noted literary canons from Germany and the United States. The writers listed in these canons were biographically researched for their mating successes. Literature production was correlated with number of mates. German but not American lyric poets had more mates than other writers. Previous findings that most literature is produced by men at reproductive age were replicated. The data supported the assumption that literature production is influenced by sexual selection (the process driven by differences in mate choice) and not just the result of natural selection (the process driven by differential survival and reproduction) or a cultural phenomenon.

Euler, H. A. (2013)
Evolutionäre Entwicklungspsychologie
In L. Ahnert (Hrsg.), Theorien in der Entwicklungspsychologie (S. 60-93). Berlin: Springer.

Euler, H. A. & Lenz, K. (2013)
Geschlechterunterschiede zwischen Biologie und sozialer Konstruktion - ein Streitgespräch. (Sex differences between biology and social construction - a debate).
In D. Lück & W. Cornelißen (Hrsg.), Geschlechterunterschiede und Geschlechterunterscheidungen in Europa (S. 29 54). Reihe: Der Mensch als soziales und personales Wesen. Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius.

Euler, H. A. (2013)
Lernen und Geschlecht
Schulpädagogik heute, H. 8, 4. Jahrgang
>> other Source
Comment: E-Mail Interview
Zusammenfassung: Die Geschlechterunterschiede sind gering in Bezug auf Leistungen und Fähigkeiten, dafür größer in Bezug auf Vorlieben, Neigungen und Lernbereitschaften.

Lange, B. P., Schwarz, S., & Euler, H. A. (2013)
The sexual nature of human culture.
The Evolutionary Review: Art, Science, Culture, 4, 76-85.

Euler, H. A. (2011)
Grandparents and extended kin
In C. A. Salmon & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of evolutionary family psychology (pp. 181-207). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Abstract: The four grandparents differ in their investment in grandchildren, with the maternal grandmother investing the most and taking an outstanding position, followed usually by the maternal grandfather, the paternal grandmother, and the paternal grandfather. This discriminative grandparenting is manifest in many investment proxies, like contact and care, expressions of affection, grandchild survival, and others. The recurrent rank order of the four grandparent types is best explained by two basic reproductively relevant variables, relationship uncertainty and sex-specific reproductive strategy. The expression of these variables is moderated by several conditions, among others residential proximity, marital status of grandparent, family size, type of joint activity, age of child, and grandparent−grandchild similarity. In natural fertility populations the availability of the maternal grandmother increases chances for child survival. In industrialized countries, the positive impact of grandparental support is still evident in high-risk family conditions under circumstances of duress.

Euler, H. A. (2010)
The psychology of families
In U. Frey, Stoermer, C., & Willfuehr, K. P. (Eds.), Homo Novus - A Human without Illusions (pp. 161-179). Berlin: Springer.
Abstract: Abstract: Two illusions about human nature with considerable implications for a psychology of families are the Illusion of Gender Sameness and the Family Socialization Illusion. The assumption of gender sameness in its modern version of the gender similarity hypothesis is critically evaluated and found to be deficient. Lacking sex differences on many variables is no matter of dispute, but on many other variables, where sex-specific selection pressures can be assumed to have existed, the differences are considerable. Ignoring to cut nature at it's joints and to use effect size estimates averaged over areas cut wrongly give a mistaken impression of only few and minor sex differences. Moreover, socially important sex differences may reveal themselves not only in differences between distribution means, but also in variance differences, a topic not addressed by the proponents of the gender similarity hypothesis. How evolutionarily designed sex differences invade mating, parenting, grandparenting, and extended family relationship and how they are responsible for a multitude of asymmetries in family life is exemplified, particularly with respect to grandparenting. The Illusion of Family Socialization denotes the wide-spread belief that the human adult personality is to a large extent formed by socialization within the family. Extensive and robust data from behavior genetic studies attest that the shared environment and thus family-specific socialization practices do not—with a few exceptions—account for the variance in personality. Considerations from evolutionary theory, particularly life history theory and parent-child conflict, deliver plausible reasons why parents are not able to mold permanently their offspring's personality. A human evolutionary behavioral science is well equipped to uncover and debunk these illusions.

Pradel, J., Euler, H. A., & Fetchenhauer, D. (2009)
Spotting altruistic dictator game players and mingling with them: the elective assortation of classmates?
Human Behavior, 30, 103-113
Abstract: Altruism can evolve through assortation if the selfish advantage of egoistic individuals is outcompeted by the benefits of mutual cooperation between altruists. This selection process is possible if (a) individuals can distinguish altruists from egoists and (b) altruists cooperate electively with other altruists, leaving egoists no chance but to mingle with each other. This study investigates whether these two conditions are fulfilled in a natural setting. One hundred twenty-two students of six secondary school classes (age 10 to 19 years) played an anonymous dictator game, which functioned as a measure of altruism. Afterwards and unannounced, the students had to estimate their classmates' decisions and did so better than chance. Sociometry revealed that the accuracy of predictions depended on social closeness. Friends and disliked classmates were judged more accurately than liked classmates or those met with indifference. Moreover, altruists were friends with more altruistic persons than were egoists. The results confirm the existence of the two prerequisites for the evolution of altruism through assortation: the predictability of altruistic behavior and the association of altruists.

Euler, H. A. (2009).
Menschliches Handeln und Verhalten in evolutionspsychologischer Perspektive.
In N. Goldschmidt & H. G. Nutzinger (Hrsg.), Vom homo oeconomicus zum homo culturalis. Handlung und Verhalten in der Ökonomie (S. 39 � 59). Kulturelle Ökonomik, Band 8. Münster: LIT-Verlag.

Euler, H. A., Hoier, S., & Rohde, P. (2009).
Relationship-specific intergenerational family ties: An evolutionary approach to the structure of cultural transmission.
In U. Schönpflug (Ed.), Cultural transmission: Psychological, developmental, social, and methodological aspects (pp.70–91). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Euler, H. A. (2009)
Evolutionäre Psychologie
In V. Brandstätter & J. H. Otto (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Allgemeinen Psychologie - Motivation und Emotion (S. 405–411). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Euler, H. A., & Hoier, S. (2008).
Die evolutionäre Psychologie von Anlage und Umwelt.
In F. J. Neyer & F. M. Spinath (Hrsg.), Anlage und Umwelt. Neue Perspektiven der Verhaltensgenetik und Evolutionspsychologie (S. 1–25). Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius.

Euler, H. A., & Michalski, R. (2007).
Grandparental and extended kin relationships
In C. A. Salmon & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships: an evolutionary perspective (pp. 230-255). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Michalski, R., & Euler, H. A. (2007).
Sibling relationships
In C. A. Salmon & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships: an evolutionary perspective (pp. 185 - 204). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Chrastil, E. R., Getz, W. M., Euler, H. A., & Starks, P. T. (2006).
Paternity uncertainty overrides sex chromosome selection for preferential grandparenting
Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 206-223
Abstract: With respect to autosomal genes, a grandparent is equally related to male and female grandchildren. Because males are heterozygous for sex chromosomes, however, grandparents are asymmetrically related to male and female grandchildren via the sex chromosomes. For example, the Y chromosome from the paternal grandfather passes directly down to grandsons. This asymmetry leads to a prediction that genes on the sex chromosomes could drive differential grandparental care. Alternatively, the paternity uncertainty hypothesis for differential grandparent care brings about a different set of predictions. A grandfather, for example, has two degrees of uncertainty to his son’s children but only one to his daughter’s children. Thus, under high extrapair paternity rates, paternity uncertainty predicts that a grandfather will favor his daughter’s children over his son’s children. A paternity uncertainty vs. a genetic relatedness hypothesis was tested using data from questionnaires asking adult grandchildren to rate the amount and quality of care of their various grandparents. We found no support for preferential care based on expected sex chromosome similarities. Instead, our data were in general accord with the predictions of the paternity uncertainty hypothesis of grandparental care. A model is presented to predict the rates of extra-pair paternity required in a population to have the effects of paternity uncertainty outweigh sex chromosome effects.

Shackelford, T. K., Goetz, A. T., Buss, D. M., Euler, H. A., & Hoier, S. (2005).
When we hurt the ones we love: Predicting violence against women from men’s mate retention tactics.
Personal Relationships, 12, 447-463.
Abstract: Mate retention behaviors are designed to solve several adaptive problems such as deterring a partners infidelity and preventing defection from the mating relationship. Although many mate retention behaviors appear to be innocuous romantic gestures (e.g., displaying resources, giving flowers), some may be harbingers of violence. We investigated the associations between male mate retention and violence against women in romantic relationships. In Study 1, 461 men reported their use of mate retention behaviors and separately completed instruments designed to assess violence in their relationships. Study 2 assessed 560 womens reports of their partners mate retention behaviors and the degree to which their partners used violence against them. As predicted, and across both studies, mens use of particular mate retention behaviors was related positively to female-directed violence. Study 3 secured 2 separate data sources—husbands reports of their mate retention and wives reports of their husbands violence in a sample of 214 individuals forming 107 couples. The results corroborated those of Studies 1 and 2, with particular male mate retention behaviors predicting violence against romantic partners. The general discussion outlines future directions for research that are likely to result in a more comprehensive understanding of partner violence against women.

Goetz, A. T., Shackelford, T. K., Weekes-Shackelford, V. A., Euler, H. A., Hoier, S., & Schmitt, D. P., & LaMunyon, C. W. (2005).
Mate retention, semen displacement, and human sperm competition: A preliminary investigation of tactics to prevent and correct female infidelity.
Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 749-763.
Abstract: Sperm competition is the competition between the sperm of two or more males to fertilize a females egg(s). We examined how men under a high recurrent risk of sperm competition might attempt to prevent and correct their partners sexual infidelity. Three hundred and five males drawn from universities and surrounding communities rated their partners physical attractiveness and personality characteristics (to assess their recurrent risk of sperm competition), and reported their use of tactics designed to prevent partner infidelity (mate retention tactics) and their use of specific copulatory behaviors arguably designed to displace the semen of rival men (semen-displacing behaviors). As hypothesized, men at a high recurrent risk of sperm competition were more likely to use mate retention tactics and to perform semen-displacing behaviors.

Euler, H. A. (2004)
Sexuelle Selektion und Religion
In U. Lüke, J. Schnakenberg & G. Souvignier (Eds.), Darwin und Gott. Das Verhältnis von Religion und Evolution (S. 66-88). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Euler, H. A. (2004)
Genspur aus der Steinzeit. Psychologie der Vaterschaftsungewissheit.
In H. Haas & C. Waldenmaier (Hrsg.), Der Kuckucksfaktor. Raffinierte Frauen? Verheimlichte Kinder? Zweifelnde Väter?(S. 34–82 und S. 323-330). Prien: Gennethos e. K. Verlag.

Euler, H. A. (2004)
Die Beitragsfähigkeit der evolutionären Psychologe zur Erklärung von Gewalt.
In W. Heitmeyer & H.-G. Soeffner (Hrsg.), Gewalt. Entwicklungen, Strukturen, Analyseprobleme (S. 411-435). Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.

Euler, H. A., & Voland, E. (2001).
The reception of sociobiology in Germany psychology and anthropology.
In S. A. Peterson & A. Somit (Eds.), Evolutionary approaches in the behavioral sciences: toward a better understanding of human nature (pp. 277-286). Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier/JAI.

Hoier, S., Euler, H. A. & Hänze, M. (2001).
Diskriminative verwandtschaftliche Fürsorge von Onkeln und Tanten. Eine evolutionspsychologische Analyse.
Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 206-215.
Abstract: 398 students rated the solicitude they received from their aunts and uncles and judged whether more care was given by the matrilateral or the patrilateral relative. The laterality effect (larger investment in descendents of sister than in those of brother) predicted by paternity uncertainty was statistically significant, but smaller than the sex effect (more care by aunts than by uncles). The ANCOVA of the solicitude ratings, corrected for the relative's age and residential distance, revealed an additional significant interaction (matrilateral bias larger in aunts than in uncles). Additionally, the participants were asked how they named their various grandparents, aunts, and uncles. Relative-specific solicitude was reflected by the variety of individual forms of address for the four grandparents, but not for aunts and uncles. The results are discussed in the context of new findings on kin investment and are interpreted as adaptations to past environments.
Zusammenfassung: 398 students rated the solicitude they received from their aunts and uncles and judged whether more care was given by the matrilateral or the patrilateral relative. The laterality effect (larger investment in descendents of sister than in those of brother) predicted by paternity uncertainty was statistically significant, but smaller than the sex effect (more care by aunts than by uncles). The ANCOVA of the solicitude ratings, corrected for the relative's age and residential distance, revealed an additional significant interaction (matrilateral bias larger in aunts than in uncles). Additionally, the participants were asked how they named their various grandparents, aunts, and uncles. Relative-specific solicitude was reflected by the variety of individual forms of address for the four grandparents, but not for aunts and uncles. The results are discussed in the context of new findings on kin investment and are interpreted as adaptations to past environments.

Euler, H. A. (2000)
Evolutionstheoretische Ansätze.
In J. Otto, H. A. Euler und H. Mandl, (Hrsg.), Handbuch Emotionspsychologie (S. 45-63). Weinheim: Beltz, PsychologieVerlagsUnion.

Euler, H. A., & Weitzel, B. (1999).
Grandparental caregiving and intergenerational relations reflect reproductive strategies.
In J. M. G. van der Dennen, J. Smillie, & D. R. Wilson (Eds.), The Darwinian heritage and sociobiology (pp. 243-252). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Euler, H. A. (1997)
Geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede und die nicht erzählte Geschichte in der Gewaltforschung.
In H. G. Holtappels, W. Heitmeyer, W. Melzer und K.-J. Tillman (Hrsg.), Forschung über Gewalt an Schulen. Erscheinungsformen und Ursachen, Konzepte und Prävention (S. 191-206). Weinheim: Juventa. (2. Aufl. 1999)

Euler, H. A. und Hoier, S. (1997).
Großelter-Elter-Beziehungen aus evolutionspsychologischer Sicht, oder: Für wen sind Schwiegermütter wirklich ein Problem?
Richardt, G., Krampen, G. & Zayer, H. (Hrsg.), Beiträge zur angewandten Psychologie / 4. Deutscher Psychologentag des Berufsverbandes Deutscher Psychologinnen und Psychologen (BDP) in Würzburg 1997 (S. 522-526). Bonn: Deutscher Psycholo

Euler, H. A., & Weitzel, B. (1996)
Discriminative grandparental solicitude as reproductive strategy
Human Nature, 7, 39-59
Abstract: 1,857 adults rated the grandparental soIicitude they received in childhood. Through a simple model based on the evolutionary concepts of ontogenetically differentiated reproductive strategy and paternity confidence, an ordered discriminative pattern of grandparental caregiving was predicted and confirmed by solid main effects, based on 603 complete cases. The maternal grandmother was the most caring. Unlike prevalent gender stereotypes, she was followed by the maternal grandfather, the paternal grandmother, and the paternal grandfather. The preferential grandparental solicitude was not influenced by residential distance, grandparent age, and availability of other grandparents. A predicted higher correlation for male than for female progenitors between solicitude and phenotypic resemblance could be confirmed.

Euler, H. A. & Weitzel, B. (1995).
Die Lieblingsoma.
prisma, Zeitschrift der Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel, 50, 3-9.

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